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Jun 10, Biological and Biomimetic Adhesives: Challenges and Opportunities Editors: Romana Santos, Nick Aldred, Stanislav Gorb, Patrick Flammang.
Table of contents

Furthermore, Pi may be present in any configuration relative to the hydroxyl group and any Qi substitution present. Any number of Qi from 0 to 3 may be present on the aromatic ring in any substitution pattern. Furthermore, Pi may be present in any configuration relative to the hydroxyl groups and any Qi substitution present. In some embodiments of the present invention, monomers that comprise a 1,2-dihydroxybenzene moiety may comprise polymerizable derivatives of 1,2-dihydroxybenzene compounds or 1,2,3-trihydroxybenzene compounds.

Suitable monomers that comprise a 1,2-dihydroxybenzene moiety may include polymerizable derivatives of 1,2-dihydroxybenzene or 1,2,3- trihydroxybenzene compounds such as, for example, catechol, pyrogallol, 1,2,4- benzenetriol, 2,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid, 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid gallic acid , 2,3,4-trihydroxybenzoic acid, 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid, 3,4- dihydroxybenzoic acid, 6,7-dihydroxycoumarin, ellagic acid, urushiols, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, and like compounds. It is believed that 1,2,3- trihydroxybenzene compounds may function similarly to 1,2-dihydroxybenzene compounds in the present embodiments in their ability to form an o-quinone.

In some embodiments of the present invention, suitable 1,2-dihydroxybenzene compounds may include 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine DOPA , dopamine, any polymerizable derivative thereof, or any combination thereof.

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When only the phenolic moieties or the 1,2-dihydroxybenzene moieties are present e. For exam ple, it may be desirable to utilize quantities of the first polymer that are as small as possible in order to keep production costs low while still achieving a satisfactory degree of adhesion.

In some embodiments of the present invention, a ratio of the first polymer to the second polymer can range between about 1 : 1 to about 1 : In some em bodiments of the present invention, a ratio of the first polymer to the second polymer can range between about 1 : 1 to about 1 : 5. Although the second polymer may be crosslinkable with the first polymer, it is not necessarily requ ired to do so. For example, in some embodiments of the present invention, crosslinking that does take place in the present adhesive compositions may occur internally within the first polymer, with the second polymer remaining unbou nd to the first polymer.

However, in some embodiments of the present invention, the first polymer may be crosslinked to the second polymer, particularly after exposure to a crosslinking agent u nder conditions su itable to promote crosslinking. In some embodiments of the present invention, both types of crosslinking may be present.

It is again to be emphasized that the crosslinking agent may be optional. In particular, when the first polymer comprises a 1,2-dihydroxybenzene moiety and the second polymer comprises an amine, a crosslinking agent may not be necessary to affect crosslinking between the first polymer and the second polymer. For example, oxidation of a first polymer comprising a 1,2-dihydroxybenzene moiety may promote crosslinking with the second polymer e.

In other embodiments of the present invention, the first polymer may be crosslinked without oxidation taking place. For example, in some embodiments, when the first polymer comprises a simple phenolic moiety, crosslinking of the first polymer to the second polymer may take place without oxidation of the first polymer occu rring.

That is, in such embodiments, the unoxidized phenolic moieties may be crosslinked directly through a reaction with a crosslinking agent. In alternative embodiments, a simple phenolic moiety may be crosslinked after oxidation. In embodiments in which the first polymer comprises a plurality of monomers comprising a 1,2-dihydroxybenzene moiety, the 1,2-dihydroxybenzene moieties may be completely oxidized to an o-qu inone in some embodiments, or a mixture of unoxidized and oxidized 1,2- dihydroxybenzene moieties may be present in other embodiments.

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In some embodiments of the present invention, the charged moieties may bear a positive charge. In other embodiments of the present invention, the charged moieties may bear a negative charge. It is believed that use of a charged second polymer may promote the formation of a coacervate when the adhesive compositions are allowed to cure. Without being bou nd by any theory or mechanism, it is believed that a second polymer comprising a plu rality of charged moieties may decrease the energy barrier of a mineral surface being bonded by the coacervate, thereby promoting more effective interaction and stronger bond ing therewith.

For example, mineral surfaces, including those fou nd in a subterranean formation, may be in a water-wet state with a thin film barrier of water over underlying surface hydroxyl groups. It is believed that a charged second polymer may increase compatibility with this water-wet state. In some embodiments of the present invention, the biopolymer may be charged or capable of bearing a charge, depending on pH conditions.

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Suitable biopolymers may include, for example, chitosan, collagen, keratin, elastin, chitin, cellulose, mucin, any derivative thereof, and any combination thereof. Particularly suitable derivatives may include carboxylic acid- or amine-containing biopolymers or derivatives thereof that can bear a negative charge or a positive charge, respectively.

In some embodiments of the present invention, a particularly suitable biopolymer may comprise chitosan or a derivative thereof. In embodiments in which chitosan is used, crosslinking between the chitosan molecules and the first polymer may take place through the amino group of the chitosan molecules. However, in other embodiments of the present invention, crosslinking of the first polymer may occur without the crosslinking agent being present.

For example, in some embodiments of the present invention, a first polymer comprising a plurality of monomers comprising a 1,2-dihydroxybenzene moiety may be crosslinked after oxidation without a crosslinking agent being present. In some embodiments of the present invention, suitable crosslinking agents may include transition metal ions.

In other embodiments of the present invention, organic crosslinking agents may be used. In some embodiments of the present invention, suitable organic crosslinking agents may include amine-containing compounds, amine-containing oligomers, or amine-containing polymers such as, for example, polyalkyleneimines and polyalkylenepolyamines.

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In some embodiments of the present invention, a suitable crosslinking agent may comprise polyethyleneimine. In some embodiments of the present invention, a transition metal ion crosslinking agent may play a dual role in crosslinking and oxidizing the first polymer.

In some embodiments of the present invention, the transition metal ion may be encountered when the compositions are used in forming a coacervate-bound surface. For example, in some embodiments of the present invention, the adhesive compositions may encounter a transition metal ion or other metal ion that promotes crosslinking when used in conjunction with a subterranean treatment operation. That is, in some embodiments of the present invention, the adhesive compositions may be crosslinked by a metal ion encountered within a subterranean formation.

In some embodiments of the present invention, suitable oxidizing anions may include, for example, perborate, percarbonate, chlorate, chlorite, bromate, periodate, or any combination thereof. In some embodiments, the oxidizing agent may comprise a transition metal ion that also serves as a crosslinking agent. Inclusion of such an additional polymer may be used to further modify the properties of the adhesive compositions. In general, any type of polymer, including biopolymers, may be used as the additional polymer, as long as the additional polymer does not form crosslinks with the first polymer and, optionally, the second polymer.

Although any subterranean treatment operation lies within the scope of the present embodiments, particularly suitable subterranean operations may include wellbore and near-wellbore consolidation operations, particulate pack consolidation, fracture stabilization, and fines control, for example. For example, the adhesive compositions described herein may be formulated in a fracturing fluid that is used to fracture the subterranean formation.

Thereafter, the adhesive compositions may undergo crosslinking so as to form a coacervate-bound surface in the subterranean formation. When used in a fracturing operation, the fracturing fluid may be introduced to the subterranean formation at a pressure sufficient to create or extend at least one fracture in the subterranean formation.

In some embodiments of the present invention, the second polymer may comprise a biopolymer. Consolidating a wellbore surface may stabilize the wellbore surface in loosely consolidated formations.

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Biological and Biomimetic Adhesives - Challenges and Opportunities - Knovel

In some embodiments of the present invention, consolidating a plurality of particulates may comprise consolidating a proppant pack. In other embodiments of the present invention, consolidating a plurality of particulates may comprise consolidating a gravel pack. Consolidation of a particulate pack may reduce the amount of particulates produced from the subterranean formation.

In still other embodiments of the present invention, consolidating a plurality of particulates may comprise controlling fines in the subterranean formation. In some embodiments, formation of a coacervate-bound surface in the subterranean formation may occur subsequent to a fracturing operation. In some embodiments of the present invention, the first polymer may be internally crosslinked with itself.

In still other embodiments of the present invention, the first polymer may be both internally crosslinked and crosslinked to the second polymer or to the biopolymer. The particular embodiments disclosed above are illustrative only, as the present invention may be modified and practiced in different but equivalent manners apparent to those skilled in the art having the benefit of the teachings herein. Furthermore, no limitations are intended to the details of construction or design herein shown, other than as described in the claims below. It is therefore evident that the particular illustrative embodiments disclosed above may be altered, combined, or modified and all such variations are considered within the scope and spirit of the present invention.

While compositions and methods are described in terms of "comprising," "containing," or "including" various components or steps, the compositions and methods can also "consist essentially of" or "consist of" the various components and steps. All numbers and ranges disclosed above may vary by some amount. Whenever a numerical range with a lower limit and an upper limit is disclosed, any number and any included range falling within the range is specifically disclosed.

In particular, every range of values of the form, "from about a to about b," or, equivalently, "from approximately a to b," or, equivalently, "from approximately a-b" disclosed herein is to be understood to set forth every number and range encompassed within the broader range of values. Also, the terms in the claims have their plain, ordinary meaning unless otherwise explicitly and clearly defined by the patentee. Moreover, the indefinite articles "a" or "an," as used in the claims, are defined herein to mean one or more than one of the element that it introduces.

If there is any conflict in the usages of a word or term in this specification and one or more patent or other documents that may be incorporated herein by reference, the definitions that are consistent with this specification should be adopted. Ref document number : Country of ref document : EP.

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